Introduction 

Zeitgeist or Spirit of time

A cultural human being, who is acquainted with the best specimens of human art, though not necessarily with all the deserving models, meeting any subject of art, whether it is literature, poetry, music or sculpture feels, apart from pure aesthetic pleasure, the spirit of time. This happens because of some characteristic peculiarities, typical for each cultural period of human development. The style, the musical sounds, the ideas imbedded, even the material shown or described and the way it is expressed, everything discloses a typical spiritual atmosphere and has a revealing flavor. Naturally literature including poetry, might produce a more pronounced effect, than any other type of art, because of the richness of details and the depth of description. The spirit of time is not something mystical, appearing from nowhere and controlling peoples minds. This term underscores, that the ideas which ripped under a period of time in the society have finally reached such degree of maturity that they start to dominate the human minds. The catalyst responsible for putting in motion the ideas is embodied by or in certain talented individuals, whose vision and ability to interpret, express and convey the ideas contributes that the ideas acquire an imperative character. The crisis of religious beliefs has started from the moment when instead of religion a belief in reason was awoke. The hope that human reason was omnipotent shattered the religion but it was initially a seeming victory; religion has been rooted very deeply in the broad masses of population, and they had little understanding for science and philosophy. Until the beginning of the 20th century religion held sway over the masses and the permanent social order promised no special changes in life pattern for the broad masses. There were however signs of intensive ferment in consciousness of the more liberal and progressive layers of the population, who expected a new spirit. In the second half of 19th century Nietzshe declared that the God is dead, meaning the death in our belief in God. This means in turn that our civilization has lost the foundation of the traditional truth and value. The subsequent events such as the first World war followed by the Russian Revolution, and finally the Second world war accompanied by destruction of colonial system in one sweep, and in less then fifty years changed the world map, and deeply affected the consciousness of people. The sense of stability and permanence which was typical for the Europe after the decade of Napoleon wars was gone. No permanence, no stability, no guaranties that tomorrow will be as it was yesterday have survived. This sense of human instability and anxiety received the theoretical bases in the existentialist philosophy of J-P.Sartre. The existentialism held that human individual could only retreat to the internal authority of the self. Art has always been extremely sensitive to the time spirit and the concomitant ideas which expressed it, and could hardly miss this dramatic change of the atmosphere. As a result a highly individualistic approach freed from the old ideals was born. New styles came and went until we arrived to the mass art called pop art - a commodity as the most of artifacts which mostly can be purchased used and thrown away without any sense of loss.

Time table
Philosophy
Arts
The impact of social aspects
The Greek philosophy and art
The Christian period
Renaissance
17th-18th Century
19th Century
20th Century
A Historic Review
Zeitgeist
An attempt to grasp the term beauty
Modern times
Market dominance
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