Introduction 

Modern times

The fall of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century is the period of an intense flowering of new ideas in political sciences, psychology, physics, as well as in music, poetry and fine arts. The achievements of philosophy of the 20th century are associated with the progress of the new physics which opened absolutely new ways of seeing the world. Both the theory of relativity and the quantum mechanics were revolutionary discoveries. The former describes the macro features of the universe, the latter describes the atomic and subatomic dimensions, where our common sense is no guide any more. The frontiers of the universe restricted to the solar system up to 19th century, expanded to the Milky way-our own galaxy-in the beginning of the 20th century; finally close to the middle of 20th century it was revealed that the Milky Way is just an insignificant fraction of universe, which is stretching about 12th Billions of light years back in time in all directions. The language of the new physics is purely mathematical, understandable just by handful of theoretical physicists. But the implications of their work expressed by the applied physics can be seen in the everyday life, for instance, in the developments of electronics reaching almost every home. The human mind unhampered by the ideological fetters has reached as deep as to subatomic structure and deciphering of the human genes, and as far as the most distant objects of the universe-the quasars. Although the knowledge and education of the most artist can hardly be sufficient to understand and follow these ideas, but the intuition led them to feel the necessity to perceive the world outlook in a quite new way to dissect the visible world into geometrical components (the cubists, Malevich) and pure light effects (Kandinsky) as it led the modern composers to study and express single sounds within their symphonies. Art can not stand still because the world is so many faceted, and the pluralistic drive, typical for our times, is so pronounced that an attempt to penetrate it by an artistic endeavor is self-evident. In this respect the ideas of beauty and truth which are imbedded in our traditional aesthetic perception and which have been our guides for two and a half millenniums have been drastically brutalized by the current practices. Everything really gracious, symmetric, pleasant for the eye is considered by art critics as out of touch with time. Squares, separate lines even almost empty cartons or some primitive drawings are considered as modern. Following the ways of development of the modern art a completely new tendency could be discerned - the fundamentally increased pressure of the market forces. The pop art and the global commercialization are the new side effects of something completely different from the fine arts we knew.

Time table
Philosophy
Arts
The impact of social aspects
The Greek philosophy and art
The Christian period
Renaissance
17th-18th Century
19th Century
20th Century
A Historic Review
Zeitgeist
An attempt to grasp the term beauty
Modern times
Market dominance
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