20th Century: Expressionism (1880-1920)

The Expressionist mood reflected, above all, crisis in values. The extraordinary acceleration in technology and production processes, the loss of importance of agrarian economy, the upheavals caused by the growth of cities and by enforced urbanisation were determinant factors in the development of Expressionist culture. The image is simplified, deformed and brutalised. The subject is linked to strictly contemporary actuality. The ultimate goal of the Expressionists was the denunciation of modern civilisation and middle- class society. The theoretical idea expressed by Marinetty is inadequacy of the literary and pictorial tool's handed down by tradition , i.e. their failure to do justice to the modern world and their inability to represent contemporary reality. The artists described as representatives of this group might actually been included in different niches according to the opinion of the art critics, some of them as Sezan, Gogen and Van Gogh are often described as post-impressionists. Modigliani who used in paintings distortion for emotional effect has created a highly personal portrait idiom. Although the features on his portraits were attenuated they nevertheless retained a remarkable degree of individuality. Chagals colourful fantasies and strange juxtaposition of objects strongly influenced Surrealist painters. This is the period when physicists thought that everything in the discipline was already completed and just few final measurements were left. However Michelsons and Morley's discovery that light velocity is constant and independent on the direction of the movement of light source stimulated A. Einstein to develop his revolutionary theories of relativity, which constitute a tremendous breakthrough in Science, and had a great effect on development both of science and technology.

See also:
» Cubism 1907-1914
» Futurism 1909-1915
» Abstract art

» Bauhaus 1917-1930
» Surrealism and Dada

» Pop art 1958-1972

Arts and Sciences:

Expressionism period
Painting: O.Kokoshka, M.Chagal, A.Modigliani, E.Kirchner, Touluse-Lautrec, Marc Chagall, Edward Munch,C.Soutine
Physics: Plank, Einstein.

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